The JDK Test Framework: Tag Language Specification

Comments and questions to: jtreg-use@openjdk.java.net.
1.41, 3 March, 2016

This is a specification document, not a tutorial. For more basic information please consult the jtreg FAQ at http://openjdk.java.net/jtreg.

Contents: Leading comments and defining files · Tag syntax · Informational tags · Declarative tags · Action tags (action options, class names as action arguments, class name wildcards, action types) · TestNG · Directory context · Test groups · Source-directory structure and test suite configuration files · Defaults · Shorthands · Examples · Supported names for @requires · Test-specific system properties and environment variables

LEADING COMMENTS AND DEFINING FILES

A particular test may involve several files of various types, but the test is specified in just one of them. Let this be called the defining file of the test.

The defining file of a test may be one of several types of files. Test tags must be enclosed in a comment at the head of the file, optionally preceded by comments which do not contain test tags. The comment in the defining file which includes the test tags is called the leading comment. The following types of defining files are recognized:

The contents of a leading comment are parsed into a sequence of tokens. A token is a maximal contiguous sequence of non-whitespace characters. Whitespace characters, which include newline and carriage-return characters, are significant only insofar as they separate tokens.

Some files within the source directory structure may be configured to implicitly be defining files. For all other files, the first token in the leading comment in the defining file of a test must be "@test". The harness discovers defining files by looking for such tokens: a file without comments is not a defining file; a file whose leading comment does not start with "@test" is not a defining file.

TAG SYNTAX

Within a leading comment, a tag consists of a tag token followed by some number of arguments. A tag token is any token whose first character is '@'. There is at present no syntax for quoting a leading '@' character. Case is significant when comparing tag tokens; all tag tokens defined here are in lower case. It is an error for the leading comment of a defining file to contain any tag token not defined here.

As a special case, the token "@(#)" is not treated as a tag token. This token may appear in the arguments to an @test tag as part of the SCCS identification string.

The arguments of a tag are simply the tokens that follow it. The argument tokens of a tag extend from the first token after the tag token to the end of the comment, the end of the file, or the next tag token, whichever comes first. Argument tokens are separated by whitespace; if commas are used, they will be considered to be part of the tokens to which they are adjacent.

INFORMATIONAL TAGS

Informational tags document the test. They do not affect the operation of the harness, but may be used by the harness in generating reports.

@test <token>*

Defining-file identifier; <token>* is typically SCCS identification info

@bug <bugid>+

Java bug system numbers

@summary <token>+

Textual summary

@author <token>+

Original author

Any particular informational tag may occur at most once in a given test.

DECLARATIVE TAGS

Declarative tags govern the execution of the tags that follow them.

@library <path|jar>+

Add one or more pathnames or jar filenames to the library path list. Each argument must use forward slash to separate file name components, and may use ".." to denote parent directories.

  • If an argument is relative (that is, it does not begin with '/'), it will be evaluated relative to the directory containing the test. It is an error if the resulting path is outside the test suite.
  • If an argument begins with '/', it will first be evaluated relative to the root directory of the test suite. It is an error if the resulting path is outside the test suite. If the result does not identify an existing directory, it will be further evaluated against each entry of a search path in turn, until an existing directory is found. The search path is specified by the external.lib.roots entry in the test suite configuration files.
  • An argument may begin with ${java.home}/ to refer to libraries bundled with the JDK being tested. An argument may begin with ${jtreg.home}/ to refer to libraries bundled with the jtreg test harness.

It is an error if any of the entries in the library path list does not identify an existing directory or jar file.

Each entry in the library path list is categorized according to its content.

  • packages: the contents are one or more source files arranged in a standard package hierarchy.
  • user modules: the contents are one or more directories, each containing the complete source code for a user module. Each directory must be named for the module it contains, and the directory must directly contain a module declaration (module-info.java).
  • system module patch: the contents are one or more directories, each containing source files to be compiled and used to patch modules in the system image being tested. Each directory must be named for the module to be patched, and the directory must not contain a module declaration (module-info.java or module-info.class). The source files in each directory must be organized in a standard package hierarchy.
  • precompiled jar file: the entry is a jar file containing precompiled class files.

It is an error if any entry in the library path list cannot be categorized. In particular, any one entry in the library path cannot contain more than one type of content. It is highly recommended that a library directory should only contain content directly related to the library; it should not contain subdirectories containing other content, such as tests, or other separate libraries.

In general, classes in library directories are not automatically compiled as part of a compilation command explicitly naming the source files containing those classes. A test that relies upon library classes should contain appropriate @build directives to ensure that the classes will be compiled. It is strongly recommended that tests do not rely on the use of implicit compilation by the Java compiler. Such an approach is generally fragile, and may lead to incomplete recompilation when a test or library code has been modified.

If a library directory is used by a directory of TestNG tests, all the classes in a library directory will be automatically compiled by means of implicit @build tags.

When the harness compiles a test, the source code for each entry (if any) will be placed on the appropriate source path, and any previously compiled classes for each entry will be placed on the class path, application module path or module patch path as appropriate. When the harness runs a test, the compiled classes for each entry will be placed on the class path, application module path or module patch path as appropriate.

The @library tag may be used more than once. It may only be used before the first @run tag (either explicit or implicit.)

The @library tag and the library path list have nothing to do with the search path (i.e., the PATH environment variable) defined in shell actions.

@key <keyword>+

Label this test with the given keyword(s). Some harnesses allow tests to be selected via boolean expressions on keywords. The list of acceptable keywords may be specified in the TEST.ROOT file (see below). The @key tag may be used at most once in a given test.

@modules <module>[/<package>]+

Express a dependence on a modules in the system being tested, and optionally, on selected internal packages in some or all of those modules.

If no dependencies are specified explicitly, a default set of dependencies will be read from the modules entry in test suite configuration files.

A test will not be run if the system being tested does not contain all of the specified modules.

Note: Specifying an entry that includes a dependence on an internal package is essentially equivalent to using -XaddExports:<module>/<package>ALL-UNNAMED when the test is compiled and run.

@requires <expression>

Express a dependence on characteristics of the system being tested. Some harnesses allow tests to be selected according to the characteristics of the system being tested. The expression may be composed of the following elements:

  • Named characteristics. See Appendix 1 for a complete list of the standard supported names, and details of the test-suite configuration files for information on how to extend the set with additional names specific to the test-suite.
  • Numeric values. Values must be decimal integers, optionally followed a suffix 'K', 'M' or 'G', which as a a multiplier of 1024, 1024*1024 and 1024*1024*1024 respectively. The resulting value must fit in a long variable.
  • String values, enclosed in double quotes '"'.
  • Boolean values 'true' and 'false'.
  • Operators:  ( )   *   /   %   +   -   ==   ~=   <   <=   >   >=   &   |   !

The @requires tag may be used multiple times in a given test. If it is used more than once, the expressions in the individual instances will be enclosed in parentheses and combined with '&'.

ACTION TAGS

Action tags tell the harness how to perform the test. They are executed in the order in which they are given. Each action either passes or fails. If an action fails, no following actions, if any, are performed. A test passes if, and only if, all of its actions pass.

Action tags begin with the tag token "@run", and have the following syntax:

@run <type><option>* <arg>*

The <type> describes the basic type of the action; the <option>s further describe how the action is to be performed. The <arg>s are passed to the test in a manner appropriate to the <type>.

The first token after the "@run" token contains both the action type and options, if any. To parse the type and the options, this token is broken down into subtokens. A subtoken is either the character '=', the character '/', or a maximal contiguous sequence of characters not containing either of these characters.

The type of an action tag is named by the first subtoken of the tag's first token. The remaining subtokens of the first token form the options. Options have the syntax

/<name>   or   /<name>=<value>

where <name> and <value> are a single subtokens. The <value> may be enclosed in double quotes to prevent the usual interpretation of '=', '/', and whitespace.

ACTION OPTIONS

Not all action types support all options.

/fail

Negate the result of the action. If the action fails it is treated as though it passed, and vice versa.

/timeout=<seconds>

Specify the timeout value. The default timeout is two minutes. If an action does not finish before the timeout expires, it fails. The timeout period applies to the entire action, not to particular steps of the action. A value of zero means there is no timeout. The /timeout option may not be given in conjunction with the /manual option.

/ref=<file>

Capture the standard output and error of the action and compare it to the content of <file>, which is in the same directory as the test. The action succeeds only if the output matches the content of the file. Even if /fail is specified, the output must match in order for the action to pass.

/othervm

Some test harnesses reuse a VM between tests. This option forces the action to be run in a fresh VM subprocess. Use this option if you need to specify VM options, or if the action might crash the VM.

/manual[=(yesno|done)]

Indicates that this is a manual action requiring user interaction. If the harness has been instructed to run only automatic actions, then this action will be skipped and will be considered to have passed. The /manual option may not be given in conjunction with the /timeout option.

If no option value is given, then the harness assumes that the test itself will handle whatever user interaction is necessary. If "yesno" is given, then the harness will ask the user whether the action is to pass or fail. If "done" is given, then the harness will wait until the user indicates that the test has completed. When the harness queries the user it does so in a manner appropriate to the action type; e.g., for applet actions it will either display "pass" or "fail" buttons or a single "done" button. In the failure case, some harnesses may provide a way for the user to submit text describing the failure.

/policy=<file>

Define the Java system property "java.security.policy" to have the value "=${TESTSRC}/<file>", where TESTSRC is the name of the directory containing the defining file of the test. This definition has the effect of making the given file the sole source of security policies to be used by the security manager. In particular, the system security policy and the user's security policy will be ignored. If the /secure option is not used then the default security manager will be installed.

Property expansion will be performed in the policy file as usual; in particular, the "test.src" and "test.classes" properties will name the source and class directories of the test being run (see DIRECTORY CONTEXT below).

This option may only be used in conjunction with the /othervm option.

/secure=<class>

Specify a subclass of java.lang.SecurityManager to be installed as the security manager. An appropriate @build tag should be provided to ensure that the class is compiled. If the /secure option is used without the /policy option then the system's built-in policy, equivalent to the original sandbox policy, will be assumed.

This option may only be used in conjunction with the /othervm option.

CLASS NAMES AS ACTION ARGUMENTS

Some actions take one or more class names as arguments. Each such argument is the name of a class, not the name of a class file, so the ".class" suffix should not be given.

A class name may be specified in one of the following ways:

If a class in a non-Java package is specified, then the source file for that class must be in the corresponding directory relative to the directory containing the defining file of the test.

CLASS-NAME WILDCARDS

Some actions take either class names or class-name wildcards as arguments. A class-name wildcard can be specified in one of the following ways:

ACTION TYPES

build <classname-or-wildcard>+

Build classes on demand. Each argument may be a class name, as described above, or a class-name wildcard. To locate a source file for a named class, the harness takes the first matching file found by looking in the test-source directory and then in each appropriate directory of the library path list. To locate the source files denoted by a wildcard, the harness evaluates the wildcard relative to test-source directory and relative to each directory of the library path list, taking all matches. Each discovered class will be compiled if its corresponding class file does not exist or is older than its source file. Intended primarily for use before main and applet actions that require more than one class to be compiled. Passes only if the compiler finishes without error, or if none of the specified classes need to be compiled.

It is an error for a build action to be the last action in a test description.

clean <classname-or-wildcard>+

Remove the class files for the named classes, if they exist. Each argument may be a class name or a class-name wildcard. Intended primarily for compiler tests. Always passes.

compile[/fail][/ref=<file>][/timeout=<seconds>][/process][/module=<module-name>] <arg>+

Invoke the compiler on the given <arg>s, which may include any compiler option other than the "-d" option. Equivalent to "javac <arg>+", therefore to specify source files the ".java" suffix must be included. Source file names should be relative pathnames using forward slashes and ".." to denote parent directories; they are normally interpreted relative to the directory containing the defining file of the test. Standard output and standard error are concatenated (not interleaved) so that /ref may be used. Intended primarily for compiler tests; non-compiler tests should generally use build actions. The timeout period, if specified, applies to the entire compile action, not to the compilation of each individual source file. Passes only if the compiler finishes without error.

The /process option can be given to indicate that the compilation includes the use of an annotation processor and that no source files are being compiled. If /process is not given, at least one source file must be specified.

The /module=<module-name> option is used to compile a patch for a module in the system image. In this one situation, the source files must be in a subdirectory named for the module, relative to the directory containing the defining file of the test. Neither the module directory nor the list of source files may contain a module-info.java file. Internally, this option corresponds to using the javac -Xmodule:<module-name> option.

User modules can be compiled by placing the code for the modules in subdirectories named for the modules. Each directory should have a corresponding module-info.java file.No other options are required: in particular, /module=<module-name> should not be used; that option is just used for patches to system modules. To avoid confusion, it is highly recommended that tests containing user modules should be placed in their own directory, and should not contain any other directories apart from the directories used to contain module source code.

The use of the -classpath and -sourcepath options as arguments to the compile action is discouraged; the @library tag is often more appropriate.

main[/fail][/manual][/othervm][/policy=<file>][/secure=<class>] [/timeout=<seconds>] <vm-opt>* <class> <arg>*

Invoke the main method of the specified class, passing any arguments after the class name. Roughly equivalent to "java <vm-opt>* <class> <arg>*". All initial argument tokens beginning with a dash are considered to be VM options; the first argument not beginning with a dash is the <class> to be invoked, and any remaining arguments are passed to the main method of that class. Passes only if the main method returns normally and does not cause an exception to be thrown, from the main thread or from any other thread. A "main" action is considered to be finished when the main method returns; if a test involves multiple threads, some synchronization may be necessary to ensure that the other threads finish their work before the thread running the main method returns.

The named <class> will be compiled on demand, just as though an "@run build <class>" action had been inserted before this action. If this action requires classes other than <class> to be up to date, insert an appropriate build action before this action. If any <vm-opt>s are given then /othervm should be specified. If the /manual option is specified then the harness will skip this action when instructed to run only automatic tests; no arguments to the /manual option are supported.

The use of the -classpath option as an argument to a main/othervm action is discouraged; the @library tag is often more appropriate. The setting of the system properties "java.security.manager" and "java.security.policy" in main/othervm actions is also discouraged; the /policy and /secure options should be used instead.

driver[/fail][/timeout=<seconds>] <class> <arg>*

Invoke the main method of the specified class, passing any arguments after the class name. Although superficially similar to @run main, this is for use when it is desirable to perform additional setup or configuration before running the class containing the actual test code, possibly in a child VM.

The named <class> will be compiled on demand, just as though an "@run build <class>" action had been inserted before this action. If this action requires classes other than <class> to be up to date, insert an appropriate build action before this action.

junit[/fail][/manual][/othervm][/policy=<file>][/secure=<class>] [/timeout=<seconds>] <vm-opt>* <class>

Invoke the specified class as a JUnit 4.5 test. Roughly equivalent to "@run main org.junit.runner.JUnitCore <class>". All initial argument tokens beginning with a dash are considered to be VM options; the first argument not beginning with a dash is the <class> to be invoked. No additional arguments are allowed. Passes only if the main method of JUnitCore returns normally and does not cause an exception to be thrown, from the main thread or from any other thread. As with a "main" action, a "junit" action is considered to be finished when the main method of JUnitCore returns.

The named <class> will be compiled on demand, just as though an "@run build <class>" action had been inserted before this action. If this action requires classes other than <class> to be up to date, insert an appropriate build action before this action. If any <vm-opt>s are given then /othervm should be specified.

The use of the @library tag, and of the /othervm, /manual, /policy, and /secure options, are the same for a "junit" action as for a "main" action; see above.

In order to use a "junit" action, the JUnit 4.5 jar file may need to be placed manually alongside the jtreg and javatest jar files in the jtreg installation. If junit.jar file is not found, and if no class named org.junit.runner.JUnitCore can be found, any "junit" actions will fail, regardless of whether the /fail option was selected.

This action executes all the tests in a single JUnit test file. All the tests in that one file will be grouped as a single jtreg test for reporting purposes.

testng[/fail][/manual][/othervm][/policy=<file>][/secure=<class>] [/timeout=<seconds>] <vm-opt>* <class>

Invoke the specified class as a TestNG test. Roughly equivalent to "@run main org.testng.TestNG <class>". All initial argument tokens beginning with a dash are considered to be VM options; the first argument not beginning with a dash is the <class> to be invoked. No additional arguments are allowed. Passes only if the main method of TestNG returns normally and does not cause an exception to be thrown, from the main thread or from any other thread. As with a "main" action, a "testng" action is considered to be finished when the main method of TestNG returns.

The named <class> will be compiled on demand, just as though an "@run build <class>" action had been inserted before this action. If this action requires classes other than <class> to be up to date, insert an appropriate build action before this action. If any <vm-opt>s are given then /othervm should be specified.

The use of the @library tag, and of the /othervm, /manual, /policy, and /secure options, are the same for a "testng" action as for a "main" action; see above.

In order to use a "testng" action, the TestNG jar file may need to be placed manually alongside the jtreg and javatest jar files in the jtreg installation. If testng.jar file is not found, and if no class named org.testng.TestNG can be found, any "testng" actions will fail, regardless of whether the /fail option was selected.

This action executes all the tests in a single TestNG test file. All the tests in that one file will be grouped as a single jtreg test for reporting purposes.

Note: this action allows individual tests to be written as TestNG tests, and placed alongside other tests using other combinations of actions. See below for details on how to set up a directory containing only standard TestNG tests.

applet[/fail][/manual[=(yesno|done)]][/othervm][/policy=<file>] [/secure=<class>][/timeout=<sec>] <html-file>

Run the applet described by the first <applet> HTML tag in the given <html-file>, ignoring any other <applet> tags. The applet action is roughly equivalent to "appletviewer <html-file>"; the major difference is that the applet is not run in the restricted security environment implemented by the appletviewer. Intended primarily for tests of graphics functionality; tests of the appletviewer itself can be written using shell actions. Passes if the applet does not throw any exceptions from any thread and, if the /manual option is specified with a value of "yesno", the user indicates that the test passes.

The class named in the <applet> tag will be compiled on demand, just as though an "@run build <class>" action had been inserted before this action. If this action requires classes other the class named in the <applet> tag to be up to date, insert an appropriate build action before this action.

If /manual is not specified, then the applet will be run by invoking its init, start, and setVisible(true) methods (in that order), delaying for a few seconds, and then invoking its stop and destroy methods (in that order).

The /manual option may be specified to indicate that the test requires human interaction. In this case the HTML file itself will be displayed; it should contain any instructions for the user. When displaying the HTML file, a harness may or may not interpret HTML tags other than the <applet> tag; thus the instructions should be written in a way that does not depend upon HTML rendering.

If /manual is specified alone, i.e., without any value argument, then the applet will be run just as in the non-manual case. The harness will skip this action, and treat it as though it had passed, when instructed to run only automatic tests.

If /manual=yesno is specified, then the harness will ask the user whether the test passes or fails, typically by displaying "pass" and "fail" buttons. The applet will be run by invoking its init, start, and setVisible(true) methods (in that order), waiting for the user to click on "pass" or "fail", and then invoking the applet's stop and destroy methods (in that order).

If /manual=done is specified, then the harness will wait for the user to indicate that the test is complete, typically by displaying a "done" button. The applet will be run by invoking its init, start, and setVisible(true) methods (in that order), waiting for the user to click on "done", and then invoking the applet's stop and destroy methods (in that order).

The setting of the system properties "java.security.manager" and "java.security.policy" in applet/othervm actions is also discouraged; the /policy and /secure options should be used instead.

shell[/fail][/manual][/timeout=<seconds>] <script> <arg>*

Invoke the Bourne shell to run <script> on the given <arg>s. The <script> argument should the name of a file relative to the test source directory (see below), using "/" to separate directories and ".." to refer to parent directories. Passes only if the script exits with an exit status of 0.

On Unix systems, the PATH will be set to /bin:/usr/bin and the following variables will be propagated if they are set: DISPLAY, GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION_ID, HOME, LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LPDEST, PRINTER, TZ and XMODIFIERS.

On Windows systems, the following variables will be propagated if they are set: PATH, SystemDrive, SystemRoot, TEMP, TMP, TZ and windir.

In addition, a number of test-specific environment variables will be set, giving details about the test itself. See Appendix 2 for the complete list of these variables.

If the /manual option is specified then the harness will skip this action when instructed to run only automatic tests; no arguments to the /manual option are supported.

ignore <word>*

Ignore this and all following @run tags. A test harness may treat this test as a failure or as some other type of error. The <word> tokens, if any, should describe why the test is being ignored. These tokens may be displayed by the harness in some appropriate fashion.

TESTNG

A directory within the source directory structure may be configured to be the root of a set of TestNG tests. When so configured, all Java source files in or under the directory are considered to be defining files, and thus considered to be a test to be executed. If a file has a leading comment, the comment may only contain informative tags and declarative tags, and may not contain any action tags.

Each test within the set is deemed to have any implicit @build action specifying all the Java source files in the set, followed by an implicit action to execute the test as a TestNG test.

DIRECTORY CONTEXT

Each test is run in a context that defines the following directories.

Working directory
The directory in which the harness is running.
Source directory
The directory containing the defining file of the test, as well as any associated files (e.g., input data files). Generally not the same as the working directory.
Class directory
The directory into which class files compiled from source files in the source directory are compiled. May be the source directory, or may be some other directory.
Java home directory
The directory containing the JDK build or release being tested.

A test may create temporary files in the working directory as needed. Test harnesses will typically delete such files before or after each test is run. In order to work properly when run standalone, however, tests should not rely upon this behavior. This can be done having each test's initialization code delete any files that the test may have created in a previous invocation.

For each source directory in the test hierarchy there is a corresponding class directory, which may or may not the same as the source directory. Classes in different source directories are, therefore, in different name spaces and their names will not collide. Simple test harnesses may place class files in source directories, while more sophisticated harnesses will generally place class files in a parallel directory hierarchy.

The names of the source, class, and Java home directories of a test are made available to shell-action scripts via the environment variables TESTSRC, TESTCLASSES, and TESTJAVA, respectively. The directory names do not have trailing separators.

The names of the source and class directories of a test are made available to main and applet actions via the system properties "test.src" and "test.classes", respectively. The directory names do not have trailing separators. Main and applet actions can read data files defined in the test's source directory using this idiom:

File f = new File(System.getProperty("test.src", "."), "foo");
InputStream in = new FileInputStream(f);

By defaulting the directory to ".", this technique allows the test to be run standalone in its source directory.

TEST GROUPS

Groups are defined in a test suite using one or more Java properties files. The names of these files must be listed in the "groups" entry in TEST.ROOT. If the filename is enclosed in square brackets, no error message will be given if the file cannot be found. Within the property files, each entry specifies items to be included or excluded from the group.

SOURCE-DIRECTORY STRUCTURE AND TEST-SUITE CONFIGURATION FILES

This specification places few constraints upon the structure of a tree of source directories. Some test harnesses may be able to provide more robust behavior or more succinct reports when they can identify the root of such a tree. The root of a test-source tree must therefore be identified by placing a file named TEST.ROOT in the root directory. Exactly one such file must exist in every test-source tree.

The TEST.ROOT file contains test-suite configuration information. It is in the standard Java property-file format as described in the specification of the java.util.Properties class. Properties defined in this file apply to the entire test suite. Additional properties files named TEST.properties may appear in subdirectories of the test suite, and may be used to provide additional configuration values that apply to files in that directory and its subdirectories.

The following properties may only appear in TEST.ROOT:

checkBugId true|false

Whether or not to check the format of strings in @bug tags. Checking is disabled if this property is set to false.

defaultExecMode agentvm|othervm|samevm

The default execution mode for tests in the test suite. A harness that supports multiple test execution modes may use this value to determine the default execution mode for tests in this test-suite.

groups <files>

Where to find group definition files. A space separated list of files. Optional files should be enclosed in square brackets.

requiredVersion <version>

Minimal version of the harness required for this test-suite. A version string in the format "[0-9.]+ ?b[0-9]+" (without the quotes). For example a value of "4.1 b03" declares that at least that version of the harness is required to run all the tests in the test suite.

requires.extraPropDefns <source-files>

This option is used to provide source files for classes that will be used at the beginning of each test suite run, to determine additional characteristics of the system for use with the @requires tag. Each class must implement java.util.concurrent.Callable<java.util.Map<String, String>>. When invoked, the call() method should return properties that can be referenced in an expression in a @requires tag. Note: the names of the new properties that may be returned by calling these classes must also be declared in a requires.properties entry.

If this option is specified, the following additional options may also be specified:

  • requires.extraPropDefns.libs <source-files> — source files for classes that will be put on the classpath when the primary classes are run.
  • requires.extraPropDefns.bootlibs <source-files> — source files for classes that will be put on the bootclasspath when the primary classes are run.
  • requires.extraPropDefns.javacOpts <options> — options that will be passed to javac when the source files are compiled.
  • requires.extraPropDefns.vmOpts <options> — options that will be passed to VM when the classes are executed.

In this family of options, if a source file is enclosed in square brackets, no error message will be given if the file is not available.

The following properties may appear in either TEST.ROOT or any TEST.properties file:

keys <keywords>

The set of valid keywords that can be used in @key tags. A harness that supports keyword-based test selection should reject any test containing keywords that are not present in this list. If this property is not present then no keywords should be accepted.

bootclasspath.dirs <directories>

Directories that when used should be placed on the bootclasspath.

othervm.dirs <directories>

Directories containing tests which should all be run in othervm mode. A harness that supports multiple test execution modes should ensure that all tests in the specified directories are run in othervm mode.

exclusiveAccess.dirs <directories>

Directories containing tests which should not be run concurrently at the same time as other tests. A harness that supports concurrent test execution should ensure that all tests in the specified directories are run when no other tests in the same directory is being run.

TestNG.dirs <directories>

Directories containing TestNG-style tests.

lib.dirs <directories>

Default library directories used by all tests in or under the directory containing this property declaration.

external.lib.roots <directories>

A search path for libraries specified in an @library tag. Relative paths will be evaluated relative to the directory containing the configuration file.

modules <module[/package]>+

Express a default dependence, for tests in this directory and its subdirectories, on modules in the system being tested, and optionally, on selected internal packages in some or all of those modules.

requires.properties <property-name]>+
Declare property names that may be used in a @requires expression. The names may identify either system properties or additional test-suite specific properties return by calling the classes defined by the @requires.extraPropDefns family of configuration values.

DEFAULTS

If no @run tags are present in a defining file, a default is assumed depending upon the file's filename extension.

File type Default Notes
.java @run main <name> <name> is the name of the file without the ".java" suffix
.sh @run shell <file>
.html @run applet <file>

SHORTHANDS

Shorthand Equivalent
@build <classname>+ @run build <classname>+
@clean <classname>+ @run clean <classname>+
@compile<option>* <arg>+ @run compile<option>* <arg>+
@ignore <word>* @run ignore <word>*

EXAMPLES

Run Foo in a separate VM, with the heap limited to 2MB and the verifier turned on:

/* @test
 * @run main/othervm -mx2m -verify Foo arg1 arg2
 */

Run Foo in the same VM, with a two-second timeout:

/* @test
 * @run main/timeout=2 Foo
 */

Compile Foo with debugging, expecting failure, and check the error message against a reference file:

/* @test
   @compile/fail/ref=Foo.ref -debug Foo.java
 */

Remove Bar's class file, if it exists, then compile Foo, then compile Bar, and finally run Bar, which is expected to fail:

/* @test
   @clean Bar
   @compile Foo.java
   @compile Bar.java
   @run main/fail Bar
 */

Run the applet described in the file Foo.html, waiting for the user to indicate success or failure.

/* @test
 * @run applet/manual=yesno Foo.html
 */

Run the class Snidely with the security manager Pinkerton, using the paranoid.sp policy file:

/* @test
   @build Pinkerton
   @run main/othervm/secure=Pinkerton/policy=paranoid.sp Snidely
 */

Run the class SnowWhite using classes in the library directory dwarfs:

/* @test
   @library ../dwarfs
   @build Bashful Doc Dopey Grumpy Happy Sleepy Sneezy
   @run main SnowWhite
 */

APPENDIX 1: SUPPORTED NAMES FOR @requires

Note: See the details for the test-suite configuration files for information on how to extend the set of supported names for a particular test suite.

@requires name Description value if set default value
if not null
jdk.version The JDK version, as given by java.specification.version system property of the test JDK.
jdk.version.major The major component of the version string, i.e. ignoring any leading "1." for versions prior to JDK 9.
os.name The operating system name, as given by the corresponding system property.
os.family The operation system family, derived from the operating sytsem name. One of linux mac solaris windows first word of os.name
os.arch The operating system architecture, as given by the corresponding system property.
os.simpleArch A simplified representation of the operating system architecture. One of x64 i586 ppc same as os.arch
os.version The operating system version, as given by the corresponding system property.
os.simpleVersion A simplified representation of the operating system version. N.0 or N.M, where N and M are first two numbers in os.version 99.99
os.processors The number of processors on this system The value as determined by Runtime::availableProcessors
os.maxMemory The maximum amount of memory available on this system. The value as determined by OperatingSystemMXBean::getTotalPhysicalMemorySize
os.maxSwap The maximum amount of swap space available on this system. The value as determined by OperatingSystemMXBean::getTotalSwapSpaceSize
vm.gc The garbage collection strategy, derived from the option -XX:+UsenameGC name
vm.opt.switch A boolean VM option, derived from option -XX:+switch or -XX:-switch true false
vm.opt.name A VM option, derived from option -XX:name=value value
profile The name of the highest profile supported by the test JDK. One of compact1 compact2 compact3
module:name Whether or not a module is available in the test JDK. One of true false

APPENDIX 2: TEST-SPECIFIC SYSTEM PROPERTIES and ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

The system properties in the following table will be set while executing any class specified in an action tag; the environment variables will be set while executing a shell action tag.

System property Environment variable Notes
test.src TESTSRC The directory containing the defining file of the test
test.src.path TESTSRCPATH The series of directories, including library directories, for the source of the test.
test.classes TESTCLASSES The directory containing the compiled classes for source files in the directory containing the defining file of the test.
test.class.path TESTCLASSPATH The series of directories for all the classes for the test.
test.vm.opts TESTVMOPTS Additional VM options for all JVMs used in the test.
test.tool.vm.opts TESTTOOLVMOPTS Additional VM options for all JVMs used in the test, each preceded by '-J', suitable for use in tool commands like "javac".
test.compiler.opts TESTJAVACOPTS Additional Java compiler options.
test.java.opts TESTJAVAOPTS Additional VM options for all invocations of the main Java launcher used in the test. (i.e.excluding JDK tools like "javac".)
test.jdk TESTJAVA The location of the JDK being used to run the tests.
compile.jdk COMPILEJAVA The location of the JDK being used to compile the tests. By default, this is the same as test.jdk and TESTJAVA.
test.timeout.factor TESTTIMEOUTFACTOR The timeout factor to be applied to the default timeout for the test.
test.nativepath TESTNATIVEPATH The location of native executables used in the tests.
test.modules TESTMODULES The module dependencies of the test, if any, defined in the @modules tag.